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      利来ag正网注册动态

      土右旗法院:节后第一天,执行工作按下“奋斗”键

      发布时间:2019-12-13 03:36:19 文章来源:中国发展网 阅读次数:504

        ByYeXingqing,,2015Intheprocessofsynchronouslypromotinganewtypeofindustrialization,informatization,urbanizationandagriculturalmodernization,,thestumblingstonesaresmall-scaleoperationandlowlaborproductivity,whichleadstolong-standinghighcost,itisdifficultforfarmerstohaveanincomecomparablewiththeaverageofthewholesociety,andtheKuznetseffect,supposedtoshowpresencewhenlaborisreallocated,-ruraldualsystem,specialdi,theChinesegovernmentshouldbecommittedtopromotingmoderate-scaleagriculturaloperationandimprovingagriculturallaborproductivity,whichshouldbearsofefforts,remarkable,agriculturaltechnologyinChinacontributed56%toagriculturalmodernization,61%ofagriculturalplowing,plantingandharvestingwasachievedbymechanizedfarming,over51%offarmlandwaseffectivelyirrigated,over95%offarmcropswereimprovedvarieties,andtheaveragecommodityrateofthreecropswasmorethan86%.Chineseagriculturehaswitnessedmoreimprovedvarietiesofcrops,betterutilizationofwaterresourcesforagriculturalproduction,greaterrateofmechanizedfarmingandhighercommodityrateofcrops,,Chinahasenteredintothemiddle-to-latestageofagriculturalmodernization(seeTable1).Table1DifferentStagesofAgriculturalModernizationSource:Estimatedbytheauthoraccordingto1998YearbookofChinasAutomobileIndustryandProspectofChinasAutomobileMarketin1999Duetothegradualestablishmentofamarketeconomyandthegraduallyenhancedroleplayedbythemarket,fluctuationsofautomobiledemobiles,automobileproductionfluctuateslessviolently,a,ontheotherhand,,forinstance,,annualimportofautomobilesstayedatmerely60,000to80,000,,theannualimportroaredonceagainto210,000and310,,1980-1998Since1995,growthrateofautomobiledemandinChinahasbeenslow,,andthatofcarsinparticular,,thedomesticuggishdomesticdemandontheonehandantherecent20years,them,,gofdemandinthefuture,fundamentalchangeshavetakenplaceinthesituationwhenimportedcarsdominatedChina’,(1998-2010)From1980to1997,,,thegrowthofthenumberofautomobilesinusehasastrongcorrelationwiththeeconomicgrowthinChinaa,meanwhile,,1981-1997Developmentofpossessionossessionofautomobilesandthechangeofthislevelinvariouscountriesa,per-capitapossessionofautomobileswillbefairlysmall,andtheelasticityofa,,economicdevelopmentwillgainmomentum,,however,,averageper-capitaincomewillreachacertainlevelafteraperiodofhigh-speedgrowth,householdswillbecometheconsumersofcars,averageper-capitapossessionofautomobileswillswelltremendously,age,theautomobilemarketwillbealmostsaturatedandtheelasticityofautomobiledemandwillcomecloseto1....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 

        ByLaiYouweiShiGuan,ResearchTeamon"Characteristics,ProblemsandCountermeasuresforE-CommerceServicesDevelopmentinChina",,2014(Total4630)inaInrecentyears,therapidpopularizat,consumerscanspendtheirfragmentedtimebrowsingwebpagesandconsuminganywhereandatanytime,,usersacrosstheworldstarttospendmoretimesurfingtheInternetwi,onlineretailerskeepempoweringmobilechannels,suchaslaunchingmobilewebpagesandapplications,toenrichusers,theMinistryofIndustryandInformationTechnology(MIIT)issuedthe12thFive-YearDevelopmentPlanonE-commerce,topromotethedevelopmentofM-commerce,tryandreg,,bytheendofJune2014,Chinahad632millionnetizens,including527millionmobilenetizens,%.CellphoneusagesurpassedtraditionalPCusageforthefirsttime,,bytheendofJuly2014,thenumberofmobileInternetusersinChinahadreached872milliona%.FromJanuarytoJuly2014,,growingbyover50%,upby48%.InDecember2013,MIITgrantedthe4GTD-LTElicensestoChinaUnicom,,,%,%,mainlycellphonenetizens,nforM-commercedevelopmentandmobileshoppinghasgraduallybecomeoneofthefirstchoicesfornetizens,thenumberofpurchaserswithcellphonesreached205million,ayear-on-yearincreaseof42%,%.Theshareofarket,inthefirsthalfof2014,China,upby378%,2013,,,%,traditionale-commerceplatforobileAPPterminals1,,inthesecondquarterof2014,thetransactionsizeofChina,%(forcellphone)%%and2%respectively,%.,location-basedservicesareactivatedwithmobileInternet,whichrealizestheseamlessintegrationofofflinestoresandonlinewebstoresandgivesbirthtotheO2Omode(OnlinetoOffline,anintegrationofonlinestoresandofflineconsumption).AllthephysicalstoresandenterprisescanpublishtheirownappsatmobileInternetandmainlyprovidesuchfunctionsasproductdisplayandexperiencetoaddressthelast-mileproblemswithclientservice,,Internetchannelsarenotseparatedfromofflineones,buta“closedloop,”e-commerceplatformscantrackdealsmadebyusersandtheir,informationonsupplyanddemandinmanyfieldsishighlydisper,asmobilepaymentispopularized,efinancialservicessuchasonlinefunds,fe-commerceextendingfromcableInternettomobileInternet,butgreatlyenrichesthee-comm,itpromotesthetransformationandupgradingofrelatedindustriesandisanimportantchan,M-commerceinvolvesnotonlymanufacturersofmobileterminals,butalsoproduction-basedserviceproviderssuchastelecomoperators,financialandpaymentserviceproviders,mobilecommerceplatforms,,WeChatandotherfreemobileapplicationsfurtherreplacethemessage-basedbusinessessuchasvoicemessagesandSMS,whichhasahugeimpactondomestictelecomo,incomefr%onayearlybasis,amongwhic%%,%onayearlybasis,%.MonthlyaverageSMSsentbymobilesu%.Whilevoicebusinesswasplunging,d,,%onayearlybasis,%totheincomegrowthoftelecombusiness.ZhangWenkuiResearchReportNo151,1329China’,thetotalnumberoflistedcompaniesinChinaisonlyalittlemorethan1,,thesecompaniesholdanevermoreimportantpositioninChinasnationaleconomy,andtheireconomica,therestructuringoflistedcompaniesisgettingpopular,havingposedaneye-catchingphenomenoninChinaseconomiclife,,thenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’,thenumberofmajorrestructuringcaseshit148asquotedintheNoticeonStandardizingListedCompaniesMajorPurchases,China’slistedcompaniesareuniqueintermsoftheirequitystructure,performanceandmanagement,ticsanddigouttherootoftheproblemsthatdogtherestructuringofChina’’sListedCompaniesAlthoughrestructuringofChina’slistedcompaniesstartedin1993,,BaoAncorporationp%to18%,ation,,anotherformofrestructuringwithChinesecharacteristicswasinventedbyHengTongCorporationwhenitpurchasedLingGuangCorporation:negotiatedtransferofth,%%ofthestate-heldsharesoftheShanghaiLingguangIndustrialCompany,theparentcompanyofLingGuang,,there,someChina’slistedcompaniesfoundthemselvesinfinancialdifficultyin1995and1996andsomeeveninred,whichgaverisetoaspecialtreatmentgroup(knownastheSTcompaniesonthestockmarket).Theemergenceoftheloss-incurringcompaniesandtheSTgroupmeantthatsomelistedcompanieswouldbedisqualringonregionaleconomies,localgovernmentswouldtryeverymeanstokeeptheirlistedcompaniesgoingonthestockmarketortoqualifythemforallotment,whichinturnledtothe,theShanghaiMunicipalGovernmenttooktheleadinthecountrytoproposetherestructuringoflistedcompaniesinfinancialmirestoretaintheir"shell"andqualifythemfortheallotmentofnewshares,andalsopickedoutagroupoflistedcompaniessuchasZhongChengShiYeandLianHeShiYe,lGovernmentwascopiedbyonelocalgovernmentafteranother,ofpolarizationamongenterprises,restructuringmastermindedbylocalgovern’slistedcompaniesisviewedbroadly,itcanbediscov’slistedcompaniesarefairlyspecialintermsoforigin,relationshipwiththegovernment,financialpreference,’"Keepshellforallotmentandborroworbuyshell"AfairlylargenumberofcasesofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanieshavebeeninitiatedtowardthegoalofkeepinglistedcompaniesinactionorqualifyingthemfortheallotmentofnewshares,orsellingsharesunderthe"shell",Chineseenterprisesh,thestockmarketsofthecountryarestillattheirearlystageofdevelopmentandgenerallyinshortsupply,thestockmarkethassmallrestrictionstoandpressureonlistedcompanies,thecostsforraisingfundsthroughstocktradingaremuchsmallerthanthosefordirectloans,andalmostnoresponsibilitiesareinvolved,,however,Chineseenterprisesfacemuchtighterrestrictionsthan,somelatecomersandnewlyestablishedhi-techornon-governmentalenterprises,inparticular,,the"shell""shell"resourcesbyrestructuring,ortotakethechanceofrestructuringtoseize,keepholdof,ormakefulluseofthese"shell"resourcescontinuallyisinlinewithboththeinterehofsomeotherstothnstitutionalequitiesisthemainmodeofrestructuringofChina’slistedcompanies,and’a’slistedcompaniesaccountforabout62%ofthetotal,negotiatedtransferofstate-ownedandinstitutionalequitieshasnaturallybecomeamodeofrestructuringthatcanb,thismodecane,,andisconducivetothepromotionoftherestructuringofChina’,however,toexposetheinterestsofsmallshareholderstoharmswhencomparedwithacquisitiononthesecondarymarket.ByWangHaiqinChengHuiqiang,ResearchTeamon"ChinasMonitoringSystemforEnvironment"ofResearchInstituteofResourcesandenvironmentPolicesofDRCResearchReportNo143,2014(Total4642)Duringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,China,thetasktoimproveChina,themonitoringdatawillfocusmoreonearlywarningagainstsevereairpollution,evaluatingtheimpactofairpollutiononhumanhealth,uirementsforimprovingthequalityofgovernmentmonitoringsystemforambientairqualityThecurrentmanagementsystemforenvironmentmonitoringinChinaischaracterizedbythefactthat"monitoringismainlyconductedbylocalauthoritiessupplementedwiththeprofessionalguidancefromthecentralgovernmentandmonitoringismainlyconductedbygovernmentmonitoringcenterssupplementedwithmarketplayers."However,withthefurtherdevelopmentofecologicalcivilization,the,,itiscommonfortheadministrationtointerfereinthemonitoringdata,whichproduc,keytechniciansinsomelocalenvironmentmonitoringcentersleavefromtheirpostsonebyoneandtlemmawher,theEnvironmentalProtectionLawamendedin2014stipulatesthattheheadsofmonitoringcentersaretoberesponsibleforthequ,itisthelocalgovernmentsthatdecidefundallocation,andtheappoin,equipment,and,theaveragenumberofstaffinthemonitoringce,thelocalenvironmentalmonitoringcenters,especiallythoselocatedinmid-westareas,arefacingmoreandmorestrikingproblems,,thesubsidiesfromthecentralgovernmentforambientairqualitymonitoringreaches15%to25%ofthetotalcost,deas,theenvironmentalmonitoringcentersinmid-westregionsareunwillingtointroducemonitoriingcenters,non-governmentalforcescantconductmonitoringbusinessatwillintheenvironmentalmonitoringdomains,airqualityinChinaToreducethenegativeimpactofthecurrentmonitoringsystemontheambientairqualitymonitoringnetwork,duringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,aseriesofreformsontheambientairquh,inordertostrengthenthecentralgovernmentssupervisiononthequalityoflocalmonitoringdata,378outof1436nationallysupervisedambientairqualitymonitromlocaltoChinasNationalEnvironmentalMonitoringCenter,,,topromotetheregionaljointpreventionandcontrolofairpollution,duringthe12thFive-YearPlanperiod,65newlybuiltregionalambientairqualitrquality,someprovinceshaveshiftedtheambientairqua,themonitoringfunctionof144ambientairqualitymonitoringpointsinShandongProvinceweretransferredfromthelocalenvironmentalcenterstoShandongEnvironmentalInformationandMonitoringCe,,theLocalenvironmentalmonitoringcentersarguethiscanhelptoalleviatelocalgovernmentssestheadministrativeinterventionfromlowergovernments,ensuringthecomparabilityandfairnessofthemonitorinngthemodelofgovernment"TrustManagement"businessdevelopsrapidlyandgovernmentsshouldpa"TrustManagement"marketmodelmeansthatgovernmentsonlyoutsourcetheoperationandmaintenanceserviceofmonitoringequipmenttothethirdparty,butst,governmentspurchasedatapartiallyfr,swhoseoperationandmanagementhasbeentakenbackbythecentralgovernmentandsomeprovincialones. 

      利来ag正网注册和政县培训专业技术人员3138名 WuJinglianDeflationinfa,thechan:,althoughtheamountofmoneysupplyisincreasing,thevelocityofmoneycirculation,nodoubt,isdrasticallydeclininginviewofth,itseemsunconvincingtosayth,weshouldnotonlypulltheeconomicgrowthbytakingthe"Keynesianist"measurestoincreasedemand,butshouldalsotapthepotentialofthesupplyside(enterprises)byadoptingthe"supply-sidepolicies".Inthisway,wecanbuildavirtuouscirclecharacterizedbysupplyexpansionanddem"supply-sideeconomists"constitutedaschoolofeconomiststhatemergedinthe1970sinWesterncountries,,the"Keynesian"demandpolicythathadbeenadoptedbythesecountriessincetheendofWorldWarIIwasnotworking,resultinginaphenomenonof"stagflation"didnotdependonwhetherdemandwassufficientasarguedby"Keynesianism".Instead,itdependedonwhetherthe"supply-side"(enterprises),themaingovernmentmeasuretopromoteeconomicdevelopmentshouldnotbetheadoptionofthefinancialandmonetarymeanstoincreasedemand;rather,itshouldbe"tiltingtowardthesupply-side"sothattheente,RonaldReaganadoptedaseriesofsupply-sidepoliciestoincreasethedynamismofAm,openingcompetition,,the"supply-sidepolicies"failedtoyieldgoodresultsincuttingdeficits,theydidbringaboutr,theeffortsmadebytheChinesegovernmentinmid-1998touseexpansionaryfinancialpoliciestopulleconomicgrowthbeganyieldingcertainresultsafterSeptemberthatyear,,them,thedependenceonthegovernmenttobeardebtsisalreadyvery,thegrowthofthenationaleconomycannotbebasedfortoolongo,itisunrealistictocontinuetotakemassivegover,itisalsoar,governmentinvestmentislikelytoproduceacertain"squeeze-outeffect",diturewillcontaintheenthusiasmofthenon-governmentalsectortoexpand,,toreversethecurrentdeflation,weneedtocontinuetoadoptexpansionaryfinancia,weshouldpaygreaterattentiontotheimplementationofthe"tiltingtosupply-sidepolicies"anddoeverythingpossibletomobilizetheenthusiasmofenterprisesandentrepreneurssothatthedynamicandgrowingenterprisescanbecomethe"engine"keoftheoldsystemsandthe"leftist"lementstoactivatethevitalityofthe"supply-side"terimplemented,theeconomyisgrowing,,Thequestionnowishowtofurtherimplementtheprinciplesofthe15"PartyCongressandbuildupnewgrowthpointsonthesupplysidebymorefirmlyrelyingonthestrengthofthemarket,,1believeworkinthefollowingareasisofutmosturgency:,inkeepingwiththeprinciplessetbythe15thPartyCongress,toadjustthelayoutofthenationaleconomy,improvetheownershipstructureofthenationaleconomy,explicitlydeclareandearnestlysupportalltheenterprisesthatmeetthe"threeconducive"requirements,andstriv,smallstate-ownedenterprisesshouldbetransformedintotrueenterprisesinkeepingwiththeprincipleof"freeingthesmall".Effortsshouldalsobemadetodoawaywiththeideologicalprejudiceanddiscriminatorypoliciesagainstthenon-state-ownedenterprises,toimprovetheiroperatingenvironmentandtoletthesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesdev"plaque-changecompanies"amongthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisessothattheycanbecomemodernenterprisesthatmeettherequirementsspecifiedintheCompanyLawofthePeople,powersandresponsibilitiesbeclearlydefined,theircorporatemanagementbeseparatedfromgovernmentfunctions,eorganizedsoasto,thecapitalmarketisfloodedwith"junkstocks",speculationisoutofcontrol,illegalactivitiesarerampant,pricesdrasticallyfluctuateandthesofruleoflawandbecomeanfavorableinvestmentgroundwithinformationtransparencyandclearly-definedrulesofthegame.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,whichmakesup5%,or7%,usedtobevillageheads,outofwhich24usedtobeteamleadersoftheirvillages,10wereoncemembersofeitherthevillagecommitteesorthevillagebranchesofthePartyCommittee,7usedtobedirectorsofvillagecommittees,3weresecretariesofthevillagebranchesofthePartyCommittee,andtherest13wereeithervillageaccountants,militialeaders,secreta,about10%,havelinealrelativeswhoaremainheadsoftheirvillages(partysecretaryordirectorofthevillagecommittee),outofwhich54arechildrenoftheseheads,28arebrothersoftheheadsandonlyonegirlisahead’%oftherespondentshavecontractedlandathomeand5%,90%leavethelandtotheirfamiliesathometobecultivated,%,theyareag,theybelongtothensinthepasttwoyearsThisisagroupoffout30%%ofthemstartedbetween1990and1995,9%in1996,%,or95people,%,54people,’–“Howdidyoufindyourfirstjob”,628respondentssaidwiththeh%,%,,%,,%,’ot“aimlessmigrants”.–“Howdidyoufindthecurrentjob”612people,or75%%ofthem,or412people,gotjobst%,or149people,%.Thatistosaytheimportanceoffamilyorgeographicrelationshipinfindingjobsisreducing,whichme–“Arethereanychangesinthewayoflookingforjobsforfarmersinyourhometown”27%oftheemployeesbelievedthattheproportionoffindingjobsthroughformalchannels(directrecruitingfromfactories,labourdepartmentsorformaljobagencies,etc.)%%said,duetovariousreasons,theycouldn’%didn’,intheeyesofthefarmers,themediaandgovernmentdepartmentsconcernedhaven’tmademuchprogressinpromoting“organizedflow”etworksbasedontheirgeographicalandfamilyconnections....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LongGuoqiangTheshareoftheelectromechanicalproductsofforeign-investedfirmsinthenationalexporthasexceeded60percent,yetproblemspersist,suchasignoranceofthetruepictureoftheexportsoftheelectromechanicalproductsoftheforeign-fundedenterprises,,aresearchgroupwassetupbytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCounciltoholdenterpriseforumsorconductquestionnaireinquiriesonanextensivescaleinBeijing,Shanghai,GuangdongProvinceandotherp,areportforthereferenceofdecisionmakingisherebysubmittedforenhancingthemacro-economicbenefitsfromt,%annuallyonaverage,byfaroutstrippingthecorrespondingaverageannualgrowthrateofsimilarexportsbythedomesticenterprises,%.Inotherwords,thecontributionrateofforeign-fundedenterprisesreached70%,%n1998wasextremelysevereundertheshockwavesoftheAsianfinancialcrisis,,,%highcontributionratetonationalexports,thusmakingimportantcoshavepositiveeffectsontheinternationalbalanceofpaymentofChina,,in1999,theimportso,ofwhich,ydirectinvestmentofthatyear;w,,thesurplusunderthecurrentaccountforexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterpri,incomewasmainlycomposedofdirectinvestmentsandloancapitalwhileexpenditurewasm,,theyconstitutedthenumberonemaandpaymentofinterests,,withasurplusofinternationalbalanceofpaymentoverUSD15billionin1999,theseforeign-fundedenterprise,,,%arecapableofprovidingmostoftheskillsbytheirowntechnologicaldevelopmentinstitutionsandalmostonethird(%),theseenterprisesfocusontechnologicaldevelopment,withtheproportionofRDinstitutionsnotonlymuchhigherthanthecorrespondingaverageofotherlargeandmedium-sizedforeign-fundedenterprises,butalsohigherthanthatofthedomesticcounterparts,,wefoundthatsomeenterpriseshadshiftedfromtheoriginalequipmentmanufacturer(OEM)andupgradedtotheoriginaldesignmanufacturer(ODM).Finally,t,stimulatedChinasdomesticmarketdem,manyenterpriseshaveadoptedavarietyofmeasuretoraisethequalityofChinese-madepartsandcomponents,andsomehaveevendemandedChineseupstreamenterprisestooperateincompliancewiththeirtechnicalstandardsbypro,theseforeign-fundedenterpriseshavenotonlyenlargedproductionandmarketingofthedomesticenterprises,butmoreimportantlyelevatedtheirtechnologicallevelsbyabigmargin,raisedtheoverallqualityofdomesticenterprisesbystrengtheningtheirmarket-orientedconcepts,suchasstableproductquality,%oftheexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterprisesrelatedwithelehipasChina’slabormarketsmakeincessantimprovements,’,,esforeign-fundedenterprisestomakebiggercontributiontonationaleconomy,,,weakinternationalcompetitivenessduetoavarietyoffactorsmakesitdifficultfortheproduct,however,existsforthemtogoabroadthroughsupplementingtheexportsofforeign-investedenterprisessoasto"gooverseasbyborrowingtheirships".,mo,domesticproductspresentunstablequality,,theprocurementrightu%ofthejointventureswithforeigninvestorsholdingthemajoritysharesprocuretheirrawmaterial,,esn’tionssetupbytheforeign-fundedenterprisesengagedintheexportofelectromechanicalproducts,theirtechn-fundedenterpri,wemustgiveprioritytoremovingtheadversefactorsinourexistingpolicieswhichhavehinderedtechnologicaladvance....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        ZhangJunkuoThe15thCongressoftheChineseCommunistPartyexplicitlypointedoutthatinordertoadjustandimprovetheownershipstructureoftheChineseeconomy,"itisimperativet,assetreorganizationandstructuraladjustmentmaybecarriedouttostrengthenthekeysectorsandimprovetheoverallqualityofthestate-ownedassets.""Underthepreconditionthatwithpublicownershipasthemain-staythestatecontrolsthelifelineofthenationaleconomyandthecontrolandcompetitivenessofthestate-ownedeconomyisincreased,aproperreductionoftheproportionofthestate-ownedeconomywillnotlikelytoweakenthesocialistnatureofourcountry."Thestrategicadjustmentofthestate-ownedeconomy,whichinvolvesbothadvanceandretreat,isacorrectstrategicprincipleofutmostimportanceputforwardbythePartyCentralCommitteeafterearnestly,someprogresshasbeenmadeincarryingoutthestrategicadjustmentofthelayoutofthestate-ownedeconomy,especiallyin"freeingthesmallones".Butsomeconstraintsstillexistintheadjus,itisnecessarytotakefurthermeasuresonthebasisofaconscientioussummaryoftheexperiencetoensureoptedbythe15thCongressandovercometheideologicalbarrierstotheadjustmentofthelayoutofthestate-ownedeconomyTheoriginallayoutofthestate-ownedeconomywasformedundertheinfluenceoftheSoviet-stylesocialisttheories,whichregardedthes,stateownershipmustoccupyanabsolutelydominantpositionintheentirenationaleconomyand,withtheexceptionofsometradeswhichinvolvesmainlymanuallaborandcannotbeownedbythestate,thehighertheproportionofthestate-ownedeconomyis,,however,theerroneousnessofthesetheorieshasbecomeincreasinglyobvious,withtheadoptionofthemarketprportantcomponentofthesocialistmarketeconomy,,insteadofinallthesectors,thestate-ownedeconomyshouldoccupyadominantpositiononlyintheimportantindustriesandkeysec,thebasicframeworkforeconomicsystem,withpublicownershipasthemainstayandvariousformsofownershipdevelopingtogether,,somepeoplearestillobsessedwiththeoutdatedconceptthat"stateownershipisanadvancedformofpublicownershipandagoalpursuedbysocialism".Theydonotfullyrealizethegreatsignificanceofthedecisionmadebythe15thPa,thefinancialcapacityofthestateisunabletosupportthestate-ownedeconomywhichcoversatoowidespectrumandfindsitselftobefinancial,theresidentssavingsgrowyearafteryearand,alongwiththeotherfinancialassetsheldbythem,thetotalhasreachedeighttrillionyuan,e,allth,thestate-own,thenon-stateeconomyregisteredavigorousgrowth,whichnowcanreplaceorpartiallyr,itispossiblefortheincrementalinputsandstockassetsofthestate-ownedeconomytobepulledoutofsomeindustriesandtradesinaplannedmannerandflowtoandstrengthentheimportantindus,thestate-ownedcapitalandthenon-statecapitalcanreplaceandcomplementeachothertoincreaseChinasoverallnationalstrengthinabetterandfasterway.Ⅱ.Tofurtherdefinethestrategicpositionofthestate-ownedeconomyandthemodeofcontrolAtpresent,somepeopleregardtheadjustmentofthelayoutofthestate-ownedeconomyasapassiveexpedientmea,therefore,thatthosestate-ownedenterpriseswithpoorefficiencyandwithlittlehopetosurvivecanbesold,,guidedbythisidea,thestrategicadjustment,whichinvolvesbothadvanceandretreat,nedeconomy,wemustcorrectlydefinethepositionofthestate-ownedeconom,wecanfurtherdefineinwhichindustriesandsectorsthestate-ownedeconomyshouldoccupyamonopolyposition,inwhichindustriesandsectorsthestate-ownedeconomymuststay,andfromwhic,drivenbyself-interest,everyin,,underthepropertyrightsystemofthestate-ownedeconomy,thestate-ownedenterprisescan,theyalsofinditdifficulttocompletelyseparategovernmentfunctionsfromcorporatemanagementortotrulygiveenterprises,dents,thefunctionstofacilitatetheimplementationofthepublicpoliciesofthestate,thefunctionstosafeguardstatesecurityandth,thestate-ownedeconomycanbettersurviveandgrowintheimportantindusompetitiveareas.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.LongGuoqiangTheshareoftheelectromechanicalproductsofforeign-investedfirmsinthenationalexporthasexceeded60percent,yetproblemspersist,suchasignoranceofthetruepictureoftheexportsoftheelectromechanicalproductsoftheforeign-fundedenterprises,,aresearchgroupwassetupbytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCounciltoholdenterpriseforumsorconductquestionnaireinquiriesonanextensivescaleinBeijing,Shanghai,GuangdongProvinceandotherp,areportforthereferenceofdecisionmakingisherebysubmittedforenhancingthemacro-economicbenefitsfromt,%annuallyonaverage,byfaroutstrippingthecorrespondingaverageannualgrowthrateofsimilarexportsbythedomesticenterprises,%.Inotherwords,thecontributionrateofforeign-fundedenterprisesreached70%,%n1998wasextremelysevereundertheshockwavesoftheAsianfinancialcrisis,,,%highcontributionratetonationalexports,thusmakingimportantcoshavepositiveeffectsontheinternationalbalanceofpaymentofChina,,in1999,theimportso,ofwhich,ydirectinvestmentofthatyear;w,,thesurplusunderthecurrentaccountforexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterpri,incomewasmainlycomposedofdirectinvestmentsandloancapitalwhileexpenditurewasm,,theyconstitutedthenumberonemaandpaymentofinterests,,withasurplusofinternationalbalanceofpaymentoverUSD15billionin1999,theseforeign-fundedenterprise,,,%arecapableofprovidingmostoftheskillsbytheirowntechnologicaldevelopmentinstitutionsandalmostonethird(%),theseenterprisesfocusontechnologicaldevelopment,withtheproportionofRDinstitutionsnotonlymuchhigherthanthecorrespondingaverageofotherlargeandmedium-sizedforeign-fundedenterprises,butalsohigherthanthatofthedomesticcounterparts,,wefoundthatsomeenterpriseshadshiftedfromtheoriginalequipmentmanufacturer(OEM)andupgradedtotheoriginaldesignmanufacturer(ODM).Finally,t,stimulatedChinasdomesticmarketdem,manyenterpriseshaveadoptedavarietyofmeasuretoraisethequalityofChinese-madepartsandcomponents,andsomehaveevendemandedChineseupstreamenterprisestooperateincompliancewiththeirtechnicalstandardsbypro,theseforeign-fundedenterpriseshavenotonlyenlargedproductionandmarketingofthedomesticenterprises,butmoreimportantlyelevatedtheirtechnologicallevelsbyabigmargin,raisedtheoverallqualityofdomesticenterprisesbystrengtheningtheirmarket-orientedconcepts,suchasstableproductquality,%oftheexport-orientedforeign-fundedenterprisesrelatedwithelehipasChina’slabormarketsmakeincessantimprovements,’,,esforeign-fundedenterprisestomakebiggercontributiontonationaleconomy,,,weakinternationalcompetitivenessduetoavarietyoffactorsmakesitdifficultfortheproduct,however,existsforthemtogoabroadthroughsupplementingtheexportsofforeign-investedenterprisessoasto"gooverseasbyborrowingtheirships".,mo,domesticproductspresentunstablequality,,theprocurementrightu%ofthejointventureswithforeigninvestorsholdingthemajoritysharesprocuretheirrawmaterial,,esn’tionssetupbytheforeign-fundedenterprisesengagedintheexportofelectromechanicalproducts,theirtechn-fundedenterpri,wemustgiveprioritytoremovingtheadversefactorsinourexistingpolicieswhichhavehinderedtechnologicaladvance....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 


        LongGuoqiangAsaninternationalorganizationdevotedtohandlinginternationaltraderelations,theWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)isinessencedesignedtorestrictthetradepoliciesofitsmembersafterenteringtheWTO,,thispaperhasputforwardsomeproposalsonthereformoftheforeigneconomicmanagementsystemstobeimplementedafterChina’’seconomyfromaclosedonetoanopenone,thecontentsofeconomicactivitieshavebecomericherandrichersincethelate1970s,andmoreandmorefoemastheultimategoalofthereform,thepaceofreformhasbeennoticeablyslowerthanthatoftheopen-updriv,meanwhile,haslgementsystemisrestrictedinagementwillbesubjecttorestrictionfromthedomesticplanningsystem,theinvestmentandfund-raisingsystem,thefinancialsystem,,thecurrentforeigneconomicma,governmentofficialsarehauntedbyred-tapism,theforeigneconomicmanagementsystemispermeatedwiththemanagementconceptof"biggovernmentandsmallmarket",andthereisthetendencyofpreferringadministrativemeasurestolegalmeans,examinationandapprovaltomanagementandservices,andhandlingofspecifi,however,thefunctionsofgovernmenthaveremainedaswhattheywere,governmentpowershavenotbeenreduced,andproblemssuchasproductionofpilesofdocuments,overlappingoforganizationalestablishments,management,complicatedformalities,numerousloopholes,,ywillhaveadirectbearingupontheabilityofcompetitionofitsenterprisesattheinternationalmarket,uponitsinvestmentclimate,,thescaleofinternatia,however,hasmadeithardlypossibleforthecou(MA),forinstance,,however,thereisnotyetanylawtogovernthisnewkindofforeignactivity,thuspreventingChinatostepuputilizationofforeigninvestmentorspeed,foranotherinstance,hasdevelopedextremelyrapidly,,however,ts,bigchangesinprice,"zerostock".InChina,however,customsandcommodityinspectiondepartmentsarestillsupervisingandmanagingthehi-techindustryinsuchawayastheytreatthetraditionalindustries,andthelowefficiencyofthesupervisionandmanagementsystemhasoftenimpedede,somehi-techenterpriseshavetotransfersomeoftheirhigh-profnagementsystemwillseriouslyrestrictthesharpeningofthecompetitiveedgeofChina’seconomyattheinternationalmarketandcausethecountrytol,reformofChina’sforeigneconomicmanagementsystemisaninherentdemandofChina’rstrengtheningtheabilityofacountryininternationaleconomiccompetition,butalsosupplyamechani,ithasadirectbearinguponacountry’seffortstogarmofthestmicstructures,,andtheabilitytomeettheimpactso,itisnecessarytocreatecertainmechanismofprotectiontoguaranteethesecurityofChina’snationalandeconomicinterests.ByLvWei,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo136,2014(Total4635)The18thCPCNaation-drivendevelopmentisthetransformationofdevelopmentmotivationinnatureanditurgentlyrequir"perfectingthemarket-orientedmechanismfortechnicalinnovationandgivingplaytotheguidingroleofmarketinRDdirection,routeselection,elementpriceandallocationofvariousinnovationelements".Inthemarketeconomy,thegovernmentcanworkonmarketmechanesourcestoInnovationHerearesomecasesabouthowthegovernmentofmarketeconomycountriesinfluencingthemarketmechani:RelaxingpricecontrolintargetedfieldsandreducingandexemptingtaxestopromotetechnicalprogressinshalegasexplorationanddevelopmentintheUnitedStatesAttheendoftheworldoilcrisisinthe1970s,theUSgovernmentkeptthedomesticnaturalgaspriceundercontrol,cripplingtheinitiativeofnaturalglsupplyshortage,theUSgovernmentpromulgatedseverallaw,itpromulgatedtheNaturalGasPolicyActin1978toabolishthecontrolovernaturalgaspricea,itenactedtheCrudeOilWindfallProfitTaxActtoinitiatelong-termtaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergydevelopmentandtheunconventionalgasdrilledfrom1980to19,thegovernmentexpandedthescopeoftaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergythroughseveralroundsofralgas,boostedtheinitiativeofUSenergyenterprisesindevelopingthegas,droveenterprisestomakecontinuousinno,break,shalegasoutputoftheUnitedStateshaskeptrisingbyover60%,includingsomemagnatessuchasShellandExxonM:Adoptingpoliciesincludingfeed-intariffanddegressivefixedfeed-intarifftoencouragePVpowergenerationandpromotePVtechnologicaladvancementinGermanyIn1991,GermanypassedtheElectricityFeedLaw,clarifyingthethreeprinciplesforPVpowergeneration:compulsivegridconnection,thatpowergrid%yearbyyearandthedifferencebetweensolarfeed-int/kWh,generationwithrenewableenergy,butalsoensuredstableandreasonableinvestment,respectively,theGer,increasedtheannualtariffdecreasemargin,adopteddifferenttariffsfordifferentformsofsolarpowe,/,butalsopromotedmanufacturersofPVpowergenerati/kWin2006toUSD1/:RegularlyadjustingemissionstandardstopromoteprogressinenergyconservationandemissionreductionoftheautoindustryinEuropeEUcountriesadoptthesameexhaustemissionstandardforcarsⅠemissionstandards,EUROⅡ,EUROⅢ,EUROⅣandEUROⅤwereputintoeffectin1992,1996,2000,,EUpassedanotheract,requiringaveragecarbondioxideemissionfor95%ofthenewcarssoldwithinEUbelow95g/,autocompanieshavetomakemassiveinvestmentintechnologicalprogress,reducepollutionandcostbyimprovingcarstructurean:FormulatingstandardsandtimetablefortechnicalupgradingtopromotetechnologyapplicationandindustrialdevelopmentofdigitaltelevisionintheUnitedStatesTopromotethedevelopmentoftheinformationsuperhighway,in1992,theClintonadministrationregardeddigitaltelevisionwithrosymarke,itpassedtheTelecommunicationsActof1996andidentifiedtheti(FCC)wasresponsibleformakingrelatedplans,publicizingthetimetableofreplacingtheanalogTVsystemwithdigitalTVsystem,fundingplansandprojectsonchannelinstallationandallocation,formulatingpreferentialpoliciesforTVstations,manufacturersandusers,offeringrelatedpartiesaperiodoftimetoprepareforthetechnical,thefederalgovernmentformulatedsupportivepoliciessuchasrelaxingaccesscontrol,grantingfinancialsupportanddevelopingtheTVcontentindustrytorestrictmonopoly,(DTV)wasfirstusedinNovember1998andbyJune2009,theUnitedStateshadclosedtransmissionofallanalogtsnottruethatthegovernmentcandonothingtoallowthemarkettoplayitsroleinallocationofinnovationresources;instead,itcanguideallocationbyadjustin,inenvironmentalprotection,energysafetyandsomeotherfieldsunderstrongexternalinfluence,themarketmechanismwonlizetheexternalcostandbenefitbeforethemarketplaysitsguidingroletochannelmoresocialsourcestowardsinnovation.ZhangWenkuiInrecentyears,,thereformisfarfromcom"SeparationofGovernmentFunctionsfromEnterpriseManagement"aswellasthe"LinkingUps"andthe"Restructuring"DerivingfromGovernmentInstitutionalReformThegovernmentorganizationalreformwhichstartedin1998hascanceledthespecializedministries,whileenterprisesoriginallyaffiliateddirectlytovariousministrieshavealso"separatedgovernmentfunctionsfromenterprisemanagement""separationofgovernmentfunctionsandenterprisemanagement",however,theseenterpriseshadtobe"linkedup"toothergovernmentandPartyorgans,forafterall,thestate-ownedorthestate-controlledenterprisesarethecarriersofstateassets,soi"linkingups"andthestateassetmanagementsystemTherearethreetypesof"linkingup".Thefirsto"linkup"withtheMinistryofFinanceintermsofassets,andwiththenewlyestablishedCentralEnterpriseWorkingCommitteeortheOrganizatio"linkup",theyshouldfacethe"restructuring"consequenceoftheprevioustwotypesofenterprisesand"linkup",thegovernmenthasthusentrustedthefirsttwotypesofenterprisestomanagethethirdgroup,aswellastosuper,itis"detachment"ontheonehandand"linkingup",itissimilartothedistributingofenterprisemanagementauthorityamongspecializedandcomprehensivedepartmen"detachment",thegovernmentisfacedwit,thegovernmenttriestomaintainandincreasethevalue,itsupervisestheenterprisesandtheirmanagerialpersonnelthroughspecialinspectors(whohavebeenchangedtoexternalinspectors),theauthorizedmanagementcontractsincreasetheresponsibilitiesofandthepressuresontheenterprisesandtheirmanagers,andthes,thecontractedstate-ownedassetmanagement,itisdifficultforthespecialinspectorsandtheappointedaccountantst"restructuring"andtheenterpriseincentivemechanismInfact,the"restructuring"ment,ith,theremnantclaimingandcontrollingpowersofthestate-ownedenterpriseshav,after20years’reformandopeningup,thestate-ownedenterprisesarenolongerthe"purelystate-ownedenterprises",but"sharedenterpriseswithstateownership".,asthe"restructuring"dismantlesthestabilityofthecontrollingpowerandthedistributionsystemofthethirdgroupofenterprises,,the"restructured"state-ownedenterpriseswillsufferfrominsufficientdevelopmentdrive,"Dilution"and"Exit"oftheState-ownedStockEquitiesTheso-calledsystemreformistoreformthetraditionalstate-own,thesystemreformofthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterpriseshasbeenimplementedwidelyinChina,whilethatofthesmallstatofthenewshareholders,thediverseequityownershipmayinclude"externaldiversificationofequityownership"and"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersmainlyconsistofinternalstaffandworkers,includingthemanagerialpersonnel,itbelongsto"internaldiversificationofequityownership".Ifthenewshareholdersaremainlycomposedofexternallegalandnaturalpersons,itbelongsto"externaldiversificationofequityownership".Intermsofthetotalsizeoftheequityandthetotalsizeofthestate-ownedequity,thereare"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Capitalexpansionthroughlistingandtargetedstockfloatingis"diversificationofequityownershipthroughdilution",whic,thesellingandtransferofthestate-ownedsharesbelongtothe"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit".Thestate-ownedenterprisescontrolledbytheCentralGovernmenthavemainlyachievedtheirdiversificationofequityownershipthrough"externaldiversification"and"diversificationthroughdilution".Whereas,mostofthestate-ownedenterprisesandthe"restructured"enterprisescontrolledbylocalgovernmentsrealizedtheirequitydiversificationthroughthecombinationof"externaldiversification"and"internaldiversification",andthecombinationof"diversificationthroughdilution"and"diversificationthroughexit".Thespecificwaysincludethefollowing:transferringorsellingthestate-ownedsharesorthestate-ownedassetstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkersofenterprises,privateenterprisesandexternalnaturalpersons;capitalexpansionbysellingstockstomanagerialpersonnelandstaffandworkers;,manystate-ownedenterprisesand"restructured"enterprisesc,inthesystemreform,thereisanabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandstate-ownedassetsellingsystemthatistransparent,icesarereasonable,,thecasemayberuledas"lossofthestate-ownedassets".Inreality,"sharedstate-ownedenterprises"sincethereformandopeningup,themanagerialpersonnelandthestaffandworkersonlywishtoturnsuch"sharing",the"lossofthestate-ownedassets"orthedebtevasionintentionusuallybecomestheobstacletothe"exit","dilution"afundedsystemoveralongtime,andthestaffandworkersconsiderthattheyshouldbecompensatedthro"repay"thesocialsecuritydebt,"unauthorizedprivatization"Theabsenceofastate-ownedsharetransferandsellingsystemthatistransparent,competitiveandacceptabletothecreditorsmakes"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit""sharing"legitimateandclear,"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theirmanagerialpersonnelsplittheenterprisesandadopt"internaldiversificationofequityownership"and"diversificationofequityownershipthroughexit",theseparatedpartsofthe,somemanagerialpersonnelhavetransferredtheprofitsfromlargestate-ownedenterprisestotheirseparatedpartsbymeansofinternaltransaction,andthusquicklydrainedtheprofitsofthelargestate-ownedenterprise....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 

      利来ag正网注册市政府办公室关于印发《南通市基本医疗保险市级统筹实施方案》的通知 --AsurveyreportfromSOEmanagersin2000ResearchReportNo53,2001TheChineseEntrepreneursSurveySystemunderthePersonnelCentreoftheDevelopmentResearchCentreoftheStateCouncilandtheResearchDepartmentofChinaEnterprisesFederationjointlyorganizedandimplementedthe"2000:Asurveybyquestionnairesamong1,000SOEmanagers".Atotalof4,000questionnairesweredistributedattheendof2000and1,ses(SOEs)basedin31provinces,autonomousregionsandmunicipalitiesexceptHongKong,,%,46%%.Thesurveyshowsthatmostofthemanagersagreethattheadministrativereformandrelationshipadjustmentbetweenthegovernmentandenterpriseshaveachievedinitialresults;gratifyingchangeisseenintherelationsbetweenownershipandmanagementofenterprises,thepositionofthestateasaninvestorhasgraduallybeenclarified,andthesimultaneousassessmentofmanagersandstateassetshaschangeddrastically;thenumberofenterprisestransformedinstructurehasincreased,butthereisalongwaytogobeforeasubstantialprogresscanbemade;theenterprises’stockrighthasbeenmorediversified;’effort,sifymanagementandhavethereforemuchupgradedtechnologicallevel,butcomparedwiththedevelopedcountries,therestillexistsawidegap-theinvestmentinRDisnotsufficient,andtechnologicaldevelopmeivemeans;thestatelawsandregulationsexerciseeffectivepowerovertheenterprisemanagers,buttheappointmentofthemandtheirdeputiesaremainlymadebysuperiordepartments;lackofincentivemechanismandadministrativeinterfer,themanagershaveputforwardquiteafewsuggestionsforthegovernmenttoimprovemacroeconomicenvironment:thegovernmentshouldcreateamorelenientclimateforSOEs,stepupeffortstocurb"arbitraryfines,chargesandlevies",furtherreducethetaxburdenonenterprises,continuetoseverelycrackdownonsmugglingandimprovemarketorderthroughstricterl(1),th"howwouldyouevaluatethecurrentadministrativereformandadjustmentofgovernment-enterpriserelationship",1%ofthemanagersresponded"verysatisfied";20%ofthemsaid"fairlysatisfied";%"so-so";%"notquitesatisfied";%"verymuchunsatisfied."Thisindicatesthatamajorityofmanagersbelievedthattheadministrativereformandadjustmentofgovernment-enterpriserelationshiphasgainedinitialresults.(2)Theenterprises’,"guaranteeingenterprises’decision-makingpower",45%ofthesurveyedsaid"fairlygood";%"so-so";%"fairlybad".Thesurveyindicatesthatthe14itemsofdecision-makingpowerthatthestatedecl,moreeffsesandEstablishmentofaModernCorporateSystem(1)Gratifyingchang"Inwhataspectshastherelationsbetweenownershipandmanagementofyourenterprisebeenstreamlined",%ofthesurveyedanswered"thepositionofthestateasinvestorhasbeenclarified";31%agreedthat"thevariousself-decisionrightsoflegalentitieshavebeenbasicallyguaranteed";%said"enterprises’corporategovernancestructureiscomplete";%sharedthat"therepresentativeororganofstateownershipisclear";%ofthesurveyedbelievedthat"enterprisecorporategovernancestructureisreallyfunctioning";%replied"therelationshasnotbeenstreamlinedyet".Onthequestion"whethersomebodyororganisexercisingtherightofstateshareholdersonbehalfofthestate",%ofthemanagersreplied"yes"%,"no".,"whetherthedepartmentororgantoassessyourmanagersarealsoresponsibletoassessthemaintenanceandincreaseofstateassetvalue",80%ofthemanagerssaid"yes"andonly20%"no".ntrelations,butals,,%ofthemanagersbelievethattheircompanieshaverealizedstockrightdiversification.(2)%ofthemanagersreplied"havealreadyrestructured";%"notrestructuredyet";and39%"beingrestructured".Whatdoestherestructuringmeantoth%oftheanswerswere"thecompanies’internalmanagementsystemhasbeenimproved";%ofthereplieswere"theownership-managementrelationsareclarified";%oftherespondentssaid"ascientificandstandardizedcorporategovernancestructurehasbeensetup";%,"decision-makinghasbeenmorescientific";%,"thedecision-makingpowerhasbeenexpanded";%,"theenterprises’performancehasobviouslyturnedforthebetter"....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.

        ChengXiushengResearchReportNo238,2000Intheearlydaysofitsdriveofreformandopening-up,Chinagrantedpreferentialpolicytreatmentandsupporttotheprivatesectorforthepurposeofchangingthesituationofunitaryownership,andthereforeprelimi,thenon-Statesectorshiphasforerunthestatesect,thenon-publicsectorhasgrowntoaconsiderablesize,resultinginasituationofco-developmentoftheState,,theprivatesectorh,China’sprivateengofthestateeconomy(characterizedbytheadvancementofsomeoftheseenterprisesandwithdrawalofsomeothers)callfortheprivana’sentryintoWTO,thecountry’’snationaleconomy,thefulfillmentofitsthird-stepstrategicgoalofeconomicdevelopment,anditsattainmentofthelevelofmoderatelydevelopedcountriesinthemiddleofthenextcentury,theprivatesec,itisnecessarytokeepproper’sprivateeconomyhasalwaysmaintaineditstrendofrapidgrowthsinceChina’,thenumberofregi,thenumberoftheem,,and’snationaleconomyatthefastestspeed,theprivatesectorhasplayedaremarkableroleinspurringtherapidgrowthoftheChina’seconomyandgainedthefollowingbasiccharacteristics:----DeparturefromthephaseofprimitiveaccumulationandgrowthtoafairlyconsiderableeconomicsizeasawholeAsgenerallyreferredtoineconomicdocuments,theprivateeconomicsectorcoversmainlyprivateenterprises,theeconomicsectorofindividualownership,andcompaniesdevelopedfromprivateenterprisesinausualsense,mmerce,,thetotalregisteredcapitaloftheseenterprisesreachedRMB1,,,individually-runind,,,employmentofworkersandgenerationoftotaloutput,theprivatesectorhasnowgainedaroughly10-20percentshareofChina’snationaleconomyandbecomeanimprofnon-Stateownership,theprivateeconomicsectorhasnowtakenupashareofmorethan60percentofandgainedadominantpositioninChina’snationaleconomyintermsofquantity.----Animportantroleininvestment,employment,taxpayment,foreignexchangeearning,andscientificandtechnicaldevelopmentInvestmentbytheprivateeconomicsectornowaccountsforabout15-20percentandthatbynon-Stateeconomicsectorincludingtheeconomicsectorofcollectiv,thesectorasawholeearnedUS$,whileprivately-runindustrincehasnowbecomeanimportantfactorwithadirectbearingonthehealthyperformanceofChina’,theyhaveundergonethreephasesofdevelopmentinChina--thephaseofbudding,thephaseofaccelerateddevelopmentandthephaseofmaturity,,thenumberofprivately-runscientificandtechnicalenterpriseshasnowgrownto200,,theseenterprisesearnedRMB1,000billioninrevenuefromtechnicalandindustrialprojectsandtrade,,andUS$----Withenlargedaveragesizeofcapitalandenhancedstrength,anumberofprivateenterprisesaredevelopingtowardsascaleeconomyBytheendof1999,theaverageregisteredcapitaloftheprivateenterprisesinChinareachedoverRMB680,000,morethanfivetimestheamountofRMB98,1millionhit200,000,about73,millionwas17,000(figuresended1998),andthosewhoseregisteredcapitalsurpassedRMB10millionnumbered9,,,,’sprivateenterpriseshasgrownconsWuJinglianDeflationinfa,thechan:,althoughtheamountofmoneysupplyisincreasing,thevelocityofmoneycirculation,nodoubt,isdrasticallydeclininginviewofth,itseemsunconvincingtosayth,weshouldnotonlypulltheeconomicgrowthbytakingthe"Keynesianist"measurestoincreasedemand,butshouldalsotapthepotentialofthesupplyside(enterprises)byadoptingthe"supply-sidepolicies".Inthisway,wecanbuildavirtuouscirclecharacterizedbysupplyexpansionanddem"supply-sideeconomists"constitutedaschoolofeconomiststhatemergedinthe1970sinWesterncountries,,the"Keynesian"demandpolicythathadbeenadoptedbythesecountriessincetheendofWorldWarIIwasnotworking,resultinginaphenomenonof"stagflation"didnotdependonwhetherdemandwassufficientasarguedby"Keynesianism".Instead,itdependedonwhetherthe"supply-side"(enterprises),themaingovernmentmeasuretopromoteeconomicdevelopmentshouldnotbetheadoptionofthefinancialandmonetarymeanstoincreasedemand;rather,itshouldbe"tiltingtowardthesupply-side"sothattheente,RonaldReaganadoptedaseriesofsupply-sidepoliciestoincreasethedynamismofAm,openingcompetition,,the"supply-sidepolicies"failedtoyieldgoodresultsincuttingdeficits,theydidbringaboutr,theeffortsmadebytheChinesegovernmentinmid-1998touseexpansionaryfinancialpoliciestopulleconomicgrowthbeganyieldingcertainresultsafterSeptemberthatyear,,them,thedependenceonthegovernmenttobeardebtsisalreadyvery,thegrowthofthenationaleconomycannotbebasedfortoolongo,itisunrealistictocontinuetotakemassivegover,itisalsoar,governmentinvestmentislikelytoproduceacertain"squeeze-outeffect",diturewillcontaintheenthusiasmofthenon-governmentalsectortoexpand,,toreversethecurrentdeflation,weneedtocontinuetoadoptexpansionaryfinancia,weshouldpaygreaterattentiontotheimplementationofthe"tiltingtosupply-sidepolicies"anddoeverythingpossibletomobilizetheenthusiasmofenterprisesandentrepreneurssothatthedynamicandgrowingenterprisescanbecomethe"engine"keoftheoldsystemsandthe"leftist"lementstoactivatethevitalityofthe"supply-side"terimplemented,theeconomyisgrowing,,Thequestionnowishowtofurtherimplementtheprinciplesofthe15"PartyCongressandbuildupnewgrowthpointsonthesupplysidebymorefirmlyrelyingonthestrengthofthemarket,,1believeworkinthefollowingareasisofutmosturgency:,inkeepingwiththeprinciplessetbythe15thPartyCongress,toadjustthelayoutofthenationaleconomy,improvetheownershipstructureofthenationaleconomy,explicitlydeclareandearnestlysupportalltheenterprisesthatmeetthe"threeconducive"requirements,andstriv,smallstate-ownedenterprisesshouldbetransformedintotrueenterprisesinkeepingwiththeprincipleof"freeingthesmall".Effortsshouldalsobemadetodoawaywiththeideologicalprejudiceanddiscriminatorypoliciesagainstthenon-state-ownedenterprises,toimprovetheiroperatingenvironmentandtoletthesmallandmedium-sizedenterprisesdev"plaque-changecompanies"amongthelargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprisessothattheycanbecomemodernenterprisesthatmeettherequirementsspecifiedintheCompanyLawofthePeople,powersandresponsibilitiesbeclearlydefined,theircorporatemanagementbeseparatedfromgovernmentfunctions,eorganizedsoasto,thecapitalmarketisfloodedwith"junkstocks",speculationisoutofcontrol,illegalactivitiesarerampant,pricesdrasticallyfluctuateandthesofruleoflawandbecomeanfavorableinvestmentgroundwithinformationtransparencyandclearly-definedrulesofthegame.…Ifyouneedthefulltext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 

      温州瓯江口管委会 五水共治 ,2015TheRecommendationsforthe13thFive-YearPlanforEconomicandSocialDevelopment(Recommendationsforshorthereafter)approvedattheFifthPlenarySessionofthe18thCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChinafocusesonChina’sadaptationtothenewtrendofeconomicglobalizationandacceleratingthecultivationpsystem,whichconstitutesthesignificantguidelineforChinatorementsforAcceleratingtheEstablishmentofaNewOpening-UpSystemAtpresent,theexternalenvironmentandinternalconditionsforChina’ttothechangesinglobaleconomicpatternAftertheoutbreakoftheinternationalfinancialcrisis,theworldeconomyenteredthein-depthadjustmentperiodwi,developedcountriesadoptedquantitativeeasingpolicies(QE)oneafteranother,buttooknosubstantivemeasuresforstructuralreform,,takinggrowingsharesintheworldeconomy,but“growattwospeeds”,withUSeconomyembarkingonagrowingtrackagain,“towardstwodifferentdirections”,’seconomygro,Chinahastoacceleratetheestablishmentofanewopening-uwiththeincreasinglyfiercecompetitioninglobalrulesAftertheoutbreakofinternationalfinancialcrisis,theWTOprogressforfreetradewasseriouslyhindered,onsofTradeinServicesAgreement(TISA)andexpansionofInformationTechnologyAgreement(ITA)theydominated,leadingtofership(TPP)andTransatlanticTradeandInvestmentPartnership(TTIP),,developedcountriesincludednewissuesinnegotiationssuchaslaborstandard,environmentalprotection,intellectualpropertyright,“bordermeasures”to“behind-the-bordermeasures”soastoraisetheentrythtionalruleswiththeaimtoprotecttheinterestsofdevelopingcountries,butalsounderstandthatchangesininternationalrules,toaconsiderableextent,’,ChinamusttakeamoreproactiveandconfidentattitudetoacceleratetheestablishmentofsystemsopanopeneconomyatahighlevelInrecentyears,Chinahasmadegreateffortstopracticethe“GoGlobal”strategywhileintroducingforeigncapital,“BringIn”andGoGlobal”,China’soutboundinvestmenthitarecordhighof$,%.Comparedwiththeinboundforeigndirectinvestment,China’soutboundinvestmentwasdwarfedonlybyasmalldivideof$,,China’soutboundinvestmentwillsurpassforeigncapitalinflow,,whileadheringto“BringIn”strategy,Chinashouldtakemoreinitiativetogoglobal,advancetheimplementationthe“BeltandRoad”Initiative,andenhanceintern,itisrequiredtoacceleratetheinnovationinsystemsandmechanisms,andstrikeabetterbalancebetweenthetwo-wayinterestsof“BringIn”and“GoGlobal”.Weshouldfurtheropenupinexchangeoftheequivalenttreatmentofothercountriestopursuemutualbenefit,iveparticipationinglobaleconomicgovernanceAfter30yearsofreform,openingupandeconomicdevelopment,Chinahasdevelopedintotheworld’’smostimportantdesti,investmentandfinance,therehasbee,Chinawillhaveandmechanisms,boostitsinstitutionaladvantagesofopening-upandendationspointsoutthat“effortsshouldbemadetoperfectalegalized,internationalizedandfacilitatedbusinessenvironment,improvethesystemsandmechanismsthatboostmutualbenefitandwin-winresultsandalsoareadaptabletointernationaltradeandinvestmentrules”.Thedocumentspecifiesthegeneralrequirements,internationalizedandfacilitatedbusinessenvironmentTobuildalegalized,internationalizedandfacilitatedbusinessenvironment,itrequiressettingupafairandjustlegalsystem,atransparentande,legalmeasuresshouldbetedwithforeignaffairs,,openmarketwithorderlycompetitionandregulation,torespectnon-discriminatoryinternationalbusinesspracticesandtogivefairtre,intheareasofopening-upsuchastradeandinvestment,Chinashouldcomprehensivelyadvancethefacilitationofmanagementsystem,improveservicesupportsystemandfacilitatetheservicetomarketentities.bet356 官网投注,2015Itisimportanttofirmlyestablishandvigorouslyimplementthedevelopmentphilosophyofinnovation,coordination,greengrowth,opennessandfruit-sharing,acceleratetransformingagriculturaldevelopmentmode,andfosternewdrivingforcesforagriculturalgrowth.“China’sFoodSecurityFoodSafetyStrategySummit”attentionfromallwalksoflife,includingtheinternationalcommunity,andplayedasignificantroleindesigningChina’rtyofChina,heldinOctober2015,reviewedandapprovedRecommendationsforthe13thFive-YearPlanforEconomicandSocialDevelopment,theblueprintforChina’sdevelopmentinthenextfiveyears,particularlyfocusingonimprovingthequalityandefficiencyofdevelopment,andacceleratingtheestablishmentofthesystem,mechanism,andeconomicgrowthmodelthatguidethenewnormalinChina’,withthethemeof“AgriculturalDevelopmentModeTransformationGrowthEngineSuccession”,reflectstheguidelinesofChina’snewdevelopmentphilosophyduringthe13thFive-YearPlanPeriod,andconcentratesonthelinchpinsinChina’odsupplyinChina,whichhascha,China’spercapitashareofgrainis450kg,,storage,processing,anddistribution,,solidfoundationforthecountrytodealwiththechallengesbroughtbyreformandopening-up,andmaintainsoundeconomicandsocialorder,butalsohasgreatlycontributedtopovertyandhungeralleviat,Chinahasmadearemarkableachievementbecauseitsupportsonefifthoftheworld’spopulationwithonefourthoftheworld’,oodsafetyisweak,,theactualamountofwaterusedinmajorgra,,suggestingChina’,China’’saveragelevel,,landandsoilinChinahavebeenoverlydeveloped,ndenvironment,thebasistosustainagricultureanditsdevelopmentwillbedestroyed,an,thestatehasraisedthefloorpurchasepriceofriceandwheat,aswellasthetemporarypurchaseandstoragepriceofmaize,effectivelypromotinggrainoutputandfarmers’,nonetheless,,thebiggestconflictinthefoodmarketisthatdomes,pricesofprimaryagricuubstitutes,whiledomesticfoodwithahighcostispurchasedbythegovernmentwiththeaimtosupportfoodprice,resultinginthegrowthoffoodproduction,’sagriculturalpoliciestoperfectthepricingmechanismofagriculturalproducts,improvethesystemoffoodpurchaseandstorage,,andtheasymmetricinformationamongproducers,dealers,consumersandregulators,,withover200millionfarminghouseholds,morethan400,000foodfirms,andsome3millionfooddealers,,depressedconsumermarket,andcontinuousincreaseofproductioncost,somefoodenterprises,inordertomaintaintheirprofitlevel,havereducedtheireffortsinqualitycontrol,’sImportedFood2010-2014issuedbyGeneralAdministrationofQualitySupervision,InspectionandQuarantineofthePeople’sRepublicofChina,thenumberofunqualifiedfoodimportedfrom112countriesandregionsduringthatperiodwas1692,1857,2499,2164and3505batchesrespectivelyeveryyearduringthatperiod,offoodsecurityandfoodsafety,wemustactivelytakemeasures,firmlyestablishandvigorouslyimplementthedevelopmentphilosophyofinnovation,coordination,greengrowth,opennessandfruit-sharing,acceleratetransformingagriculturaldevelopmentmode,’smore,itisofsignificancetofocusonbothfoodquantityandquality,boththecurrentandlong-rundevelopment,bothdomesticmarketandinternationalmarketandresources,soastocomprehensivelyimprovefoodsecurityandfoodsafety.ByLiWei,DRCPresidentIntheDecisiononMajorIssuesConcerningComprehensivelyDeepeningReformsadoptedattheThirdPlenarySessionofthe18thCPCCentralCommittee,itispointedthateffortsaretobemadetoenhancetheconstructionofnew-typethinktankswithChinesecharacteristic,PresidentXiJinpinghastwicegivenimportantinstructionsontheconstructionofthinktanksandstressedthatgreatimportanceshouldbeattachedtothinktanksasanimportantcomponentpartofChinassoftpower,andmajoreffortsshouldbemadetoexploretheorganizationalformsandmanagementstyles,ontheonehand,indicatethatbuildingthinktanksisanimportanttooltoadvancethemodernizationofthenationalgovernancesystemandgovernancecapability,and,ontheotherhand,makeclearthefundamentalorientationandgeneralrequirtemThinktanks,alsoknownas"braintrust",generallyrefertoprofessionalinstitutionsonpublicpolicies,whosemainfunctionistoprovidehigh-qualityoptionsforpolicy-makerstosolveeconomic,,inthemodernsense,cameintobeinginWesterncountriesinthe19thcentury,asaresultofthespecif,theworldspoliticalpowerandeconomicorderhaveundergonedeachcountry,theadvicesgivenbyindividualcounselorscouldhardlymeettheneeds,team-basedthinktankswereurgentlyneededtoprovidehigher-qualityandprofessionaloptandwithimprovedcounselingservicestheyforgedcl,theyhavebecomeanimportantcomponentpartofthestategover,thenumberofoutstandingthinktanksacrosstheglobeamountedto6,,beforetheSecondWorldWartherewereonly20oddthinktanksincludingtheBrookingsInstitutionandtheHooverInstitutiononWar,RevolutionandPeacewhereasitsnumberofthinktankshadincreasedto1828by2013,formingarelativelycom,inthemodernsense,aremainlyengagedinraisingprofessional,objectiveandindependentproposalsonpublicpolicies,helpingpolicy-makersformulateandimplementrelevantpolicies,,culturaltraditionanddevelopmentstage,thinktanksintheWesterndevelopedcountriesaremainlysocialorganizationsindependentfromthegovernmentsystem;whileinEastAsianareas,governmentsofmajoreconomiesactivelybuiltalargenumberofthinktanksinthelate20thcentury,bearingthespecialfeatureof"government-run",actsandbills,thegovernmentsorpartiesofWesterncountriesoftenholdin-depthdiscussionsandmakerepeateddemonstrationswithrelevantthinktanks,stermofoffice,theAtlanticCouncilcompletedChinaPolicyintheNextDecade,whosemainpdefame,thankstoitssuccessfulpredictionandstrategicresearchonsuchmajorinternationaleventsasthelaunchingtimeofRussiansfirstsatellite,thewithdrawalofAmericantroopsfromVietnam,theestablishmentofSino-USdiplomaticrelations,theCubanmissilecrisis,,thespeechesordebatesonpublicpoliciesatlegislaturesbyMPsinWesterncountriesareactuallyabattleamongdifferentthinktanks."ComprehensiveSafeguardStrategy"putforwardbyNomuraResearchInstitute(NRI)(KDI)contributedtheirwisdomandhelpedtheg,itsnotdifficulttoseethatthequalityofthinktank,,threlevantoptionsandproposals,makedemonstrationandevaluationonrelatedactionplansandimplementationeffects,,theycaninspirepeoplesociety,expertsandscholarsfromthinktankswritearticles,publishworksandmakecommentsand,,thinktankscanputforwardpoliticalviewsfromanobjectiveandfairstandpointandp,"arevolvingdoor",theg,afterleavingtheirpostsoraftertheirretirement,getengagedinpolicyresearchworkinrelevantthinktanks,overnmentandthinktanksandfacilitatethelattersIsaRequestofOurTimesDuringtherevolutionaryperiodandtheearlystageofconstruction,theCPChadattachedgreatimportancetotheworkofpolicyconsultation,investigationandresearch,butteaupdrive,ChinaestablishedinstitutionsonpolicycounselingandresearchsuchastheChineseAcademyofSocialSciences(CASS)andtheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil(DRC).AccordingtothestatisticsofShanghaiAcademyofSocialSciences,thereareover200relativelyactivethinktanksinChina(notincludingcollegeanduniversitythinktanks)andacommondevelopmentpatternhastakeninitialshape,withofficialthinktanksworkingasthemainstayandsupplementedbyuniversity,ellasthehotanddifficultissuesinChinaseconomicandsocialdevelopment,alltypesofthinktankshaveearnestlyfulfilledtheirdutiesandproducedanumberofvaluableresearchfindingsforpolicymaking,Theimpactresultingfromtheimplementationofrelevantresearchresultshavepushedforwardscientificanddemocraticdecisionmaking,andmadecontributionstoChina,duetotheirgoodwork,becomequitewell-knownintheworld.


        ByZhangChenghui,,’sCreditGuaranteeIndustryWiththeapprovaloftheStateCouncil,China’sfirstprofessionalcreditguaranteecompany,ChinaEconomicandTechnologicalInvestmentandGuaranteeCompany(laterrenamedasChinaNationalInvestmentGuaranteeCorporation),itisstilltheonlynationalnon-bankfinancialinstitutionengagingincreditguarantee,,theShenzhenHigh-TechInvestmentCo.,Limited(formerlyknownastheShenzhenHigh-TechIndustrialInvestmentServicesCo.,Limited)wasestablished,wh,the“GuidanceforthePilotEstablishmentofSMECreditGuaranteeSystem”issuedbytheformerNationalEconomicandTradeCommission,clearlydefinedthebusinessscopeandmodelsofdifferenttypesofSMEcreditguaranteeinstitutions,anddesignedtheframeworkofSMEcreditguaranteesystem①.Inthisdesign,theoperatorofSMEcreditguaranteeisthegovernment(alongwithgovernmentaffiliatedinstitutionsandenterprises),withitscapitalmainlyfromthefiscalbudget,landuserightandrenterprisesengaginginguarante,inordertopreventrisks,regulatorycommitteeinordertosupervisethecreditguarantee,re-guaranteebusinessandinstitutionswithinitsjurisdiction(includingmutualguaranteeinstitutionsforenterprisesandcommercialguaranteeinstitutions).In2001,theformerNationalEconomicandTradeCommissionissuedthe“NoticeontheEstablishmentofNationalSMECreditGuaranteeSystem”,,thenumberandcapitalscaleofcreditguaranteeinstitutionsaregrowingunceasingly,,%.Bytheendof2013,thereare8185instituti,,,%.Atpresent,China’scre,inthedomainofcreditguaranteebusiness,despitetheever-increasingvarietyofguarantees②,,,%,thesefinanc,profitpolicy-orientedfinancialservices,intheprocessofdevelopment,financialresourceswere,governmentatalllevelsbegantointroduceprivatecapital,,itutionstookup70%ofthetotalandprivateinvestment30%,whichwasessentially“government-dominatedandnongovernment-supplemented③”.However,bytheendof2004,privatefundinghadalreadyaccountedfor50%,therewere1907state-controlledcompaniesoutofthe8590financingguaranteeinstitutionsnationwide,%%④.Thirdly,governm,localgovernmentsinallregionshaveallocatedspecialfundstocompensatefinancingguaranteecompaniesagainstrisks,,thepolicysupportsysteminvariousaspectshasbeenformedforguaranteeinstitutions,rangingfrombusinesssubsidy,incrementalbusinessincentives,capitalinjection,’,governmentallowsguaranteeagenciestochargeasmuchas50%’lendingratesaregenerallyaround7%-10%,andchargesofguaranteeagenciestoenterprisesare3%-5%(chargesofgovernment-fundedguaranteearelowerthanthoseofcommercialcompaniesby1-2percentagepoints).Becausealmostallcreditrisksareassumedwiththisrate⑤,thesu,itisdiffi,becauseofgovernment’sstrictrestraintofthebusinessscopeofguaranteecompanies,,during2011to2013,guaranteefeeonlyaccountsfor3%-4%,,%,%%,,someguaranteecompanieslosemoneyevenintheabsenceofanycompensationpayout,owingtothemeageem,theori,,coupledwiththelackofsustainabilityinthere-guaranteemechanismitself,theprovincialre-guaranteemechanismswereeithernotyetestablishedornoteffectiveaftertheestablishment.XieFuzhanEconomicsecurityandotherelementslikeeconomicgrowth,fullemployment,economicstabilityandequa’smacro-managementdifferatdifferentdevelopmentstages,indifferentcountriesandagainstdifferentinternationalbackgrounds,buteconomicsecurityisthetargetofmacr,eachcountryisgraduallyexpandingitsopennessandthecross-countryflowofcapital,information,,thereisnoeconomicsecurityforindividualsandhouseholds,,wealsoneedtopayattentiontoandconcernaboutanumberofhouseholdsandindividualstroubledandthreatenedbyeconomicsecurityproblemsevenwh,socialandenviron:first,theinfluencesofmacro-managementonhumaneconomicsecurity;second,thechallengesfacingChina’seconomicsecurity;third,ecurityofindividualsandhouseholdsinvolvesemploymentopportunities,incomelevel,wealthappreciationanddepreciation,utofpovertygraduallywhilewealthyindividualsandhou;short-termorlong-termandsustained;:First,,fastandhealthynationaleconomicgrowth,,,Chinahasbeenstickingtothepolicyoftakingeconomicc,%,andtheannualgro%.%.om250millionbeforethereformandopening-upto34millionbytheendof1999andthegenerallivideconomicdevelopmentwiththenationalforeignexchangereservetotaling160billionUSD,,,nomattercausedbyinflationordeflation,willexertnecome,tojoblesspeopleandtopeopleandhouseholdsbelongingtothedepartments,sect,duetothesupplysurplusonthemarket,,whichresultinunemploymentordeclinedincome,,,theincreaseofnetincomepercapitaforruralresidentssloweddown,andin1990and1991,theincreaseratewasonly2%.Undertheconditionofdeflationin1997and1999,the,therewereincreasedlaid-offworkersanddecreasednewempl,Chinesegovernmentincreasedbyalargemargintheincomeofmediumandlow-incomeurbanresidents,andtookmeasurestoissuetimelythebasiclivingcostallowndandoptimizingthequalityofmacroeconomicoperation,ontheotherhand,,currentlyinChina,somemacro-policieshave,thechangesinemploymentsystemhavebrokenthe“ironbowl”oftheplanningeconomicsystem,whichhaveraisedtheuncertaintyofpeople’sincomeexpectationandpeople’sawarenesstohandlecrisisinfutureeconomicsecurity,,housingreformandmedicalcarereformhavebrokentheoriginalbenefitdistributionpattern,,thereformofhighereducationsystemhasincreasedtheprospectexpenditureonchildren’’sfutureincomeandexpenditurebalancebroughtbythesereforms,people’sconsumptionpsychologyandbehaviorhavebeenaffectedandtheirreactiontot,butmanyreformmeasuresaremorefavorabletopeoplewithvestedinterestsandresultedingreatervulnerabilngreformandimplementingmacro-policies....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 

        Source:Estimatedbytheauthoraccordingto1998YearbookofChinasAutomobileIndustryandProspectofChinasAutomobileMarketin1999Duetothegradualestablishmentofamarketeconomyandthegraduallyenhancedroleplayedbythemarket,fluctuationsofautomobiledemobiles,automobileproductionfluctuateslessviolently,a,ontheotherhand,,forinstance,,annualimportofautomobilesstayedatmerely60,000to80,000,,theannualimportroaredonceagainto210,000and310,,1980-1998Since1995,growthrateofautomobiledemandinChinahasbeenslow,,andthatofcarsinparticular,,thedomesticuggishdomesticdemandontheonehandantherecent20years,them,,gofdemandinthefuture,fundamentalchangeshavetakenplaceinthesituationwhenimportedcarsdominatedChina’,(1998-2010)From1980to1997,,,thegrowthofthenumberofautomobilesinusehasastrongcorrelationwiththeeconomicgrowthinChinaa,meanwhile,,1981-1997Developmentofpossessionossessionofautomobilesandthechangeofthislevelinvariouscountriesa,per-capitapossessionofautomobileswillbefairlysmall,andtheelasticityofa,,economicdevelopmentwillgainmomentum,,however,,averageper-capitaincomewillreachacertainlevelafteraperiodofhigh-speedgrowth,householdswillbecometheconsumersofcars,averageper-capitapossessionofautomobileswillswelltremendously,age,theautomobilemarketwillbealmostsaturatedandtheelasticityofautomobiledemandwillcomecloseto1....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,2002GeneralstabilitywithslightgrowthwastheoverallfeatureofChina’,sant’sburden,reducethebarrierstotheflowofsurplusrurallaborforce,improvethetradeconditionsforfarmproducts,promotetheconstructionofsmallc,thepricesofgrainandcottonweresomewhathigher,morepeasantswentouttodonon-farmworkand,aboveall,thegrowthofpeasantinco,whilesomeofthedeep-seatedcontradictionsaccumulatedinthepastwerenotsolvedyet,,theconditionsforpeasant’,peasant’,overtheyears,continuedtostimulatedomesti,,,thelocalfinancebecamemoredifficult,,maintainingtheeconomicandsocialstabilityatthegrass-ro(I)Agriculturalproductionremainedsteady,structuraladjustmentcontinued,andsomemainproductssawoutputincreasewhileotherswitnessedtheoppositeComparedwiththepreviousyear,,,,,,,,,,,easfollows:,summercrops,earlyriceandautumncropsallsawtheiroutputfellbelowthepreviousyear’,,,,,’,,,’,cultivatedareaandunitoutputofcottonrisedrastically,,,,000hectaresmorefromthepreviousyear’,000tons,,104kilogramsperhectare,ear,,drough,,plasticfilmswereusedtocoverseedleiprovinces,,(II)Peasant’sincomegrowthceasedtodeclineandbeganbouncingbackNetpeasant’%,,thepric,,,,,thelivestockindustrybecamethemainsourceofincreasedofpeasant’dthefollowingthreecharacteristics:,,,,,,t,,,,,,,,thepeasants’,,,...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,ByYeXingqing,QinZhongchunJinSanlin,,2015Thepricesupportpolicyforagriculturalproducts,featuringminimumgrainpurchasepricesandtemporarypurchaseandstorageofmajoragriculturalproducts,isakeypartofChina’ldevelopmentmode,optimizeproductionstructure,riculturalproductsduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiodinanoverallway,basedonnationalstrategies,stageofdevelopment,theLastTwoYearsDuringthelasttwoyears,Chinahasadoptedaseriesofmeasurestoad,thegovernmentnolongerpurchasesandstoressugar,andthetaskispassedtosugar-makindculturalproductsontheonehand,andonthr,“summarizingtheexperienceofthesereformssoastoperfectthewaysofsubsidizingandtoreducecosts”.,shouldthegovernmentpurchasesllatfavorableprices,whichnotonlyincreasesinventoriesandlatentlosses,butincreasesthematerialcostofdown-streamenterprisesandevenadd,thereformoftargetpricesubsidyforagricultura,,,“amberbox”,thefirstrequirementismetandtherei,/orhand-involume,,thethirdrequirementisyettobemet.“Amberbox”%,ifcalculatedbasedonthepricespreadbetweentargetpices,liketargetpricepurchase,subsidy,mortgage,ranceforagriculturalproducts,whilenodetailedstatepoliciesareunvei,BeijingShunyiDistricthasimplementedinsuranceforpigpriceindex;Shanghai,Zhejiang,dbecauseofseveralfactors,includinglackoflocalfiscalresources,aswellductsduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiodbasedonthenationalfoodsecuritystrategyPricesupportpolicyforagri,thepricesunceattheendof2013,GeneralSecretaryXiJinpingproposedthenewnationalfoodsecuritystrategybasedondomesticsupplyandmoderateimports,aimedatensuringproductioncapaciorkwhichincludesrationalresourceallocation,prioritizingthefundamentalfield,griculturalmarketsandresourcesmoreproactively,,itisurgenttoformulateinternationaltradestrategyformajoragriculturalproducts,strengthentheplanningandguidanceforagriculturalproductsimport,optimizethesourcesofimports,,moreimportanceisattachedtoscientificallydeterminingtheself-sufficiencylevelofmainagricu,underthedualpressureofgrowingdemandandbindingconstraintofresourcesandenvironment,Chinahastoadjustitspoliciestotreatagriculturalproductsdifferently,andu,Chinashouldnotsolvetheissueoffeedingitspopul,Chinashouldmoderatelyimportagriculturalproductsandscien,agriculturalproduc,pricesupportpolicyforagriculturalproductswillplacethepriorityonriceandwheat,andpublicresourcesand“amberbox”donthedevelopmenttrendofpricespreadbetweenagriculturalproductsathomeandabroadOverthepastdecade,Chinahaspromotedthegrowthofagriculturalproductionandfarmers’incomebycontinuouslyincreasingtheminimumpurchasingpriceofgrainandtelowerthanafter-taxCIFpricesofimportedgrain,,however,theformerhavegraduallyexceededthelatterandreachedthe“ceiling”,Chinahasbeencommittedtoimposingsingletariffonmostproducts,’smore,,,therearetwo“ceilings”uotaimports,andthesecondisafter-taationalmarkets,andthedevelopmenttrendofthepricespreadbetweendomesticandimportedfoodduringthe13thFive-YearPlanperiod,therearethreecircumstancesasfollows. 

      帝濠正式官网我市举办珠三角区域(广州)产业转移对接暨市情说明会 Source:thefiguresfor1986wereesti“ElectronicsIndustryYearBook”forfiguresforthe“SeventhFive-YearPlan”andfor1991~,fastgrowthandledbyPC,isbasicallyconsistentwiththeinternationaltrend,thedifferencebeingonlythattherap,theproportionofPCinthecomputermarketisnearly90%inChina,whichishigherthanthatintheUSandJapan,whereitisabout70%.grewrapidlyfrommerelyUS$640millionin1991toUS$$80millionin1993toUS$,includingoverseas-fundedenterprises,ticsoftheformerElectronicsMinistry,computerandconcernedproductsinChinain1996weresoldtocustomerswiththefollowingproportions:financial/insuranceandmanufactureindustries18%,serviceindustry9%,transportation8%,telecommunications8%,educationandresearchinstitutions7%,energyandgovernmentorganisations6%,andhouseholds4%.However,thepr,ofthePCsalesinChina,%in1997andwillbeover30%by2000.(II)Thecomputerindust,cationoftheformationofanindustryistysystemwasonly191in1991withatotalemploymentoflessthan100,,thenumberofenterprisesconductingdevelopment,manufacture,sales,consultationserviceofcomputerandrelatedproductsreached15,000in1995,withanemploymentof300,,morethan1,000manufacturersemployedsome100,000staff,morethan1,000softwareenterprisesemployed80,000staffandsome13,000enterprisesinsalesandserviceemployedsome120,000staff....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,%orso,about1%,intermsofeconomicconditionandelementssupportingeconomicgrowth,areasfollows:,proactivefinancialpoliciesandstablecurrencypolicieshavebeenimplementedwithmorestressgiventochannelantate-ow,establishmentofloanguaranteefundshave,tocertainextent,,b,therecoveryofeconomiesinEastAsiaincludingJapan,thecontinuedeconomicexpansionoftheUSandthestableeconomicgrowthinEuropehavecreatedagoodexternalenvironmentforthegrowthofChina’tersandthefavorablebalanceofforeigntradewaslowerthanthatofthesameperiodoflastyear,theincreaseininternationaldemandhasplayedanobviousroleinpromotingthegrowthofChineseindustrieswithcomparativeadvantages(whicharemainlylabor-intensiveindustries).Ontheotherhand,fastgrowthintheimportofrawmaterialsandelectromechanicalequipmen,sincethebeginningofthisyear,whichincreased,fastgrowthinelectronicsindustryandtelec%.Thecomparativelyslowdevelopmentinbasicindustriess%,whichisthehighestduringtheperiodoftheEighthandtheNinth"Five-yearPlan".vidualbusinesseshavebeenformulatedinvariouslocalitiesinrecentyearsinimplementingthepolicyofthe15thCentralCommitteeofallandmedium-sizedenterprises,relaxingrestrictionsontheapprovalofexporttrading,,,GuangdongandJiangsuprovinces,whereprivateenterprisesarerelativelyconcentrated,tr(SOEs),%forstate-ownedenterprisesandstateholdingenterprises,1%%.,%,,%,ovementofexternalenvironmentarethemajorreasonsforfastergrowthininvestment,,improvementinthesupplystructure,fastergrowthofnon-stateenterprisesandtheprogressmadebystate-ownedenterprisesinresolvingdifficultiesarethemajothenewcenturyaswellasthefirstyearofthe"TenthFive-yearPlan"ucturingdec,,experienceinexpandingdemandandfightingagainstdeflati,itwasdecidedattheFifthPlenarySessionofthe15thCentralCommitteeofthePartythatthestructuralreadjustmentisthemaintheme,whichmeanstheannualeconomicpolicyandtheme,,riseineconomicgrowthandstabilityofpriceaftershrinkageforaconsiderableperiodoftime,enterprisesaremoreditionsforinvestment,,thethree-yeartargetforstate-ownedenterprisestoovercomedifficultieshasbeenattained,whichmeansbetterconditionsforstrategicreadjustmentofstateeconomicdis,constructionandcompletionofsomeinfrastructureprojectssupportedbythestatetreasuryinrecentyoundationforcontinuedexpan,withthedecreaseoftheoutputofsummergrains,’,despitetheriseoftheincomeformiddleandlow-paidpeopleinthefirsthalfoftheyear,dly....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByWeiJigang,ResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyofDRCResearchReportNo142,2014(Total4641),ageographerofthelateMingandearlyQingDynasty,inhisDushiFangyuJiyao(EssenceofHistoricalGeography),Hebei“occupiestheupstreamandpossessesthepotentialtodefendattacksfromtheworld,WouldntitbethenowZhili(anadministrativedivision)”Inthenewhistoricalperiod,promotingtheoptimizationandupgradingoftheindustrialstructureinHebeiProvinceisofcrucialimportanceforitso,regionalandprovincialconditions,Hebeineedstopositionitsindustryinthelightofdomesticandinternationalchangesinindustrialstructure,chooseitsdevelopmentdirectioninlinewiththemarketdemand,regionallabordivisionandcoordinationaswellasindustrialdevelopmentpattern,anddeterminethebreakthroughfieldsbasedontheexistingfoundations,ionofHebeiProvinceAtpresent,theworldeconomicstructurehasundergonemajorchanges,andtheworldeconomicfocusisshiftingtoAsia,,newmajorbreakthroughswillbeseeninnewscienceandtechnologyaswellasinnewindustry;intdustryandtradeinallcountries,,globalizationfacilitatesglobalconnectivityandmobility,booststhedeepeningofgloballabordivisionandtheformationofglobalvaluechain;thetrendsofglobalresearchdevelopment,globalprocurement,production,,,whilesomelow-endlinksshifttothedevelopingcountrieswithmorecostadvantagesinprimaryfactors;internationalcompetitionbecomesmorefierce,andtradefrictionsandbarriersarestillontherise;industrialdevelopmentshouldmeetthedemandforthegoodsandservicescharacterizedbybeinggreen,energy-saving,environmentallyfriendly,intelligent,highquality,,Chinahasbecometheworldsbiggestpowerofmanufacturingandtrade,,,newfeaturesofthecurrenttimesareembodiedinregionaleconomicintegration,constructionofurbanagglomerations,regionalblocs,andtheestablishmentofFreeTradeArea(FTA).IntermsoftheregionaleconomicdevelopmentandlabordivisioninChina,whileaccountingforalargepartofthetotaleconomyandwithrelativelywelldevelopedurbanagglomeration,theYangtzeRiverDeltaandPearlR,Shanghaifocusesonthedevelopmentofmodernserviceindustryandadvancedmanufacturingindustryas,JiangsuandGuangdonghavetheirownleadingindustries,nlocation,environmentandr,andTianjinputmoreimportanceinthedevelopmentofheavychemicalindustry,manufacturingindustry,high-endandnewtechnology,shipping,entyears,,agricultureandindustry,,,petrochemicalindustryandequipment,flatglass,penicillinandvitaminCrunsthefirstinthecountry,boastingsomefamousbrandnamesandresourceadvantagesincoal,petroleum,iron,,,:poorinnovationcapacity;weakcorecompetitiveness;homogeneousproduction;low-levelrepetition;lackofspecialtyindustry;lackofprofitsfromproducingqualityproducts;seriousindustrialovercapacity;scaleexpansionbyoverdependenceonlabor,land,resourceandotherfactors;environmentaldegradationandresourcesdepletion;bigchallengesofenvironmentalcontrol3;severeshortageofwaterresource4;growingconflictbetweenhumandemandandlandavailability;inadequatedevelopmentofvariousmarkets;lowdegreeofoutward-orientationandopenness;weekoceanconsciousness;lessdevelopednon-state-ownedeconomyandfewersmallandmediumenterprises(SMEs)comparedwithotherdevelopedprovinces5;lesssatisfactoryenvironmentfortheenterprisesdevelopment;lowinclusivenessofindustryandsociety;lackofwell-developedmetropolitanareas,sparsespatiallayoutofindustries;lackofindustrylinkage;thedevelopmentandcapacityofrailways,ports,aviation,logistics,supplychainmanagement,marketing,RD,finance,sindustrialstructureneedtobeconsideredfrommultipleperspectivesofhistory,geography,growth,future,linkage,newtechnology,internationalsituationandspace.

        ByLvWei,DepartmentofTechno-EconomicResearchofDRCResearchReportNo136,2014(Total4635)The18thCPCNaation-drivendevelopmentisthetransformationofdevelopmentmotivationinnatureanditurgentlyrequir"perfectingthemarket-orientedmechanismfortechnicalinnovationandgivingplaytotheguidingroleofmarketinRDdirection,routeselection,elementpriceandallocationofvariousinnovationelements".Inthemarketeconomy,thegovernmentcanworkonmarketmechanesourcestoInnovationHerearesomecasesabouthowthegovernmentofmarketeconomycountriesinfluencingthemarketmechani:RelaxingpricecontrolintargetedfieldsandreducingandexemptingtaxestopromotetechnicalprogressinshalegasexplorationanddevelopmentintheUnitedStatesAttheendoftheworldoilcrisisinthe1970s,theUSgovernmentkeptthedomesticnaturalgaspriceundercontrol,cripplingtheinitiativeofnaturalglsupplyshortage,theUSgovernmentpromulgatedseverallaw,itpromulgatedtheNaturalGasPolicyActin1978toabolishthecontrolovernaturalgaspricea,itenactedtheCrudeOilWindfallProfitTaxActtoinitiatelong-termtaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergydevelopmentandtheunconventionalgasdrilledfrom1980to19,thegovernmentexpandedthescopeoftaxreductionandexemptionforunconventionalenergythroughseveralroundsofralgas,boostedtheinitiativeofUSenergyenterprisesindevelopingthegas,droveenterprisestomakecontinuousinno,break,shalegasoutputoftheUnitedStateshaskeptrisingbyover60%,includingsomemagnatessuchasShellandExxonM:Adoptingpoliciesincludingfeed-intariffanddegressivefixedfeed-intarifftoencouragePVpowergenerationandpromotePVtechnologicaladvancementinGermanyIn1991,GermanypassedtheElectricityFeedLaw,clarifyingthethreeprinciplesforPVpowergeneration:compulsivegridconnection,thatpowergrid%yearbyyearandthedifferencebetweensolarfeed-int/kWh,generationwithrenewableenergy,butalsoensuredstableandreasonableinvestment,respectively,theGer,increasedtheannualtariffdecreasemargin,adopteddifferenttariffsfordifferentformsofsolarpowe,/,butalsopromotedmanufacturersofPVpowergenerati/kWin2006toUSD1/:RegularlyadjustingemissionstandardstopromoteprogressinenergyconservationandemissionreductionoftheautoindustryinEuropeEUcountriesadoptthesameexhaustemissionstandardforcarsⅠemissionstandards,EUROⅡ,EUROⅢ,EUROⅣandEUROⅤwereputintoeffectin1992,1996,2000,,EUpassedanotheract,requiringaveragecarbondioxideemissionfor95%ofthenewcarssoldwithinEUbelow95g/,autocompanieshavetomakemassiveinvestmentintechnologicalprogress,reducepollutionandcostbyimprovingcarstructurean:FormulatingstandardsandtimetablefortechnicalupgradingtopromotetechnologyapplicationandindustrialdevelopmentofdigitaltelevisionintheUnitedStatesTopromotethedevelopmentoftheinformationsuperhighway,in1992,theClintonadministrationregardeddigitaltelevisionwithrosymarke,itpassedtheTelecommunicationsActof1996andidentifiedtheti(FCC)wasresponsibleformakingrelatedplans,publicizingthetimetableofreplacingtheanalogTVsystemwithdigitalTVsystem,fundingplansandprojectsonchannelinstallationandallocation,formulatingpreferentialpoliciesforTVstations,manufacturersandusers,offeringrelatedpartiesaperiodoftimetoprepareforthetechnical,thefederalgovernmentformulatedsupportivepoliciessuchasrelaxingaccesscontrol,grantingfinancialsupportanddevelopingtheTVcontentindustrytorestrictmonopoly,(DTV)wasfirstusedinNovember1998andbyJune2009,theUnitedStateshadclosedtransmissionofallanalogtsnottruethatthegovernmentcandonothingtoallowthemarkettoplayitsroleinallocationofinnovationresources;instead,itcanguideallocationbyadjustin,inenvironmentalprotection,energysafetyandsomeotherfieldsunderstrongexternalinfluence,themarketmechanismwonlizetheexternalcostandbenefitbeforethemarketplaysitsguidingroletochannelmoresocialsourcestowardsinnovation.Amongthekeyindustries,,whichwas30%,23percentagepointshigherthantheprojected7%,326billionyuan,%,marilyduetotheimplementationofaseriesofstatemacropolicymeasures,whicheffectivelypushedupthegrowthofconsumption,,thereorganizationandrestructuringofthepetro,thesuccessfullistingofthetwogroupsoninternationalmarketsbroug,thehigherpricesofpetroleumandsomepetrochemicalproductsonthedomesticmarket,drivenupbyinternationaloilpricehikes,alsoplayedanimportantpart,theindustry’stotaloutputvaluewas30%,telecommunicationproductsandinvestmentproductsthrivedinbothproductionandsales,,thesalesofcellularphonesposted140%growth,%growth,andcolorTVscreens,electroniccomponentsandintegratedcircuitsalsogrewmorethan40%.Inadditiontothefast-growingdomesticdemand,thequickrecoveryinexcies,,42%,ygrew20%intheyear,%higherthanthatof1999,12percentagepointshigherthanthenationalaverage,,,,%,theoutputoftruckstotaled764,000,,000,%higherthan1999,,000,7%,heavy-dutytruckscontinuedtoleadthegrowth,risingby74%evelsof1999,%,light,%,%,bothcons,ironandsteelproductswere,theironandsteelproductionreboundedtosomee,asthemarketandpricesgraduallybecamestable,,theou,%,%%,thetotalsteeloutputwascontrolledwithi,%,,whiletheplate-piperatioroseto42%,,thoseinoversupply,suchassmall-sizedproductsandwirerods,,theproductsinshortsupplyondomesticmarket,suchaslargeandmedium-sizedproducts,%%respectively,0,pushedbyri,%,%,%.Amongthemainbuildingmaterials,cementtotaled580milliontons,%,whileplateglasstotaled180millionweight-crates,%.In2000,,%,,,,thetotaloutputvalueofthefiveprovincesandautonomousregionsofShaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,%in2000,rket,increasingintensecompetitionandtherelevantstatepolicies,didmuchbetterintermsofrevenue,profit,,afastgrowthtrendappearedintheelec,350billionKWH,%,hydro,%,%%,ftheyear,onthebasisofmorethan10%,326billionKWH,%,especiallysomepower-consuminglargeandmedium-sizedstate-ownedenterprises,werethe%ofalltheelectricityconsumedandcontributed70%,thereductionandexemptionofpowerconsumptionsubsidies,theconsolidationofruralpowerprices,thereducedpricesoftheruralhouseholdpowerconsumptionandthesharpriseoffuelpricesallcontributedtothefastgrowthofthedemandinthepowermarket....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 

 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